A Unified Dynamic Theory of Time

Created and Written by Daniel M. Kirchmann

It is the intent of this paper to propose a unified theory of time which will show an alternate view of the nature of time arrows which is far simpler to understand and work with than other current time theories. In this paper, it will be shown that the various time arrows can be defined as effects of a dynamic current development and the various phenomenon of time will be explored and explained.  

This paper shall first explain the concepts of historical and entropy time arrow and then will proceed to describe the nature of time, the past, present and the future in terms of dynamic time theory. The future is a quantum mechanic objective basic probability.  
It will be explained how the second law of thermodynamics follows from this.  

This idea is similar to the Crystallizing Block Universe by George F. R. Ellis and Tony Rothman (see: arXiv:0912.0808v1 [quant-ph] )

It is my opinion that our present picture of physical reality, particularly in relation to the nature of time, is due for a grand shake up — even greater, perhaps, than that which has already been provided by present-day relativity and quantum mechanics.

Roger Penrose

Why do the historical time arrow and the entropy
time arrow point in the same direction?

Fig. 7.2. The laws of mechanics are time-reversible; yet the time-ordering of such a scene from right frame to the left is something that never is experienced, whereas that from the left to the right would be commonplace.

All the successful equations of physics are symmetrical in time. They can be used equally well in one direction in time as in the other. The future and the past seem physically to be on a completely equal footing. Newton`s laws, Hamilton`s equation`s, Maxwell`s equations, Einstein`s general relativity, Dirac`s ecuations, the Schroedinger equation—all remain effectively unaltered if we reserve the direction of time. (Replace the coordinate t which presents time, by –t.) The whole of classical mechanics, is entirely reversible in time.

(Roger Penrose)

Dr. Breuer describes the same problem:
My cup of coffee cools in the direction of the future and becomes hotter in the direction of the past. But the behaviour of heat is not reversible in time and characterizes according to the second law of thermodynamics a direction in time. That the coffee cools off ought to astound everyone. For ultimately according to classic mechanics the movement of each single particle of which the coffee consists is reversible in time.

At least it seems to be clearly the case that whatever physics is operating, it must have an essentially time-assymmetrical ingredient, i. e. it must make a distinction between the past and the future.

Roger Penrose
One can classify events in two different ways according to “earlier” and “later.” With the entropy time arrow or with the historical time arrow.

The entropy time arrow

The entropy time arrow distinguishes events as “earlier” and “later” according to the degree of entropy. The entropy of “earlier” is always less than the entropy of “later.”

The historical time arrow

The historical time arrow classifies events by documents. The past is known to us from documents, the present is known to us from experience, the future is unknown.
All events in the past can be classified in this way according to “earlier” and “later.”

The information from “earlier” is a partial quantity of information from “later.”
The information of the 1850 history book is a partial quantity of the information from the 1900 history book. In the 1950 history book there are events which are missing in the other two books (such as the First World War), since in 1850 and 1900 all later events were unknown. In this way, with the historical time arrow all events can be arranged according to “earlier” and “later,” since information from “earlier” is always a partial quantity of information from “later.”

This is a strictly mathematical arrangement of the historical time arrow which has not been violated in a single known instance.


An event E1 at time t1 is “earlier” than another event E2 at time t2 if for all information I1 at time t1 and for all information I2 at time t2 the following applies:


The specific peculiarity of this temporal arrangement in distinction to spatial arrangement is its non-linearity. In contrast to space, it is not linear but hierarchical. Later documents not only document earlier events, but also earlier documents (which document even earlier documents).

The usual designations “apparent” and “subjective” do not do justice to the historical time arrow. Optical illusions are apparent and one’s own attributes (like taste) to a single person or to the human being.

By contrast, the historical time arrow is made of the same tangible reality as the receptacle of Nautilus Pompilius. The latter is a direct event of its history and reflects it.

The stages of development of Nautilus Pompilius and the historical time arrow:

Nautilus Pompilius’ construction has been shaped by the historical time arrow:
Information from “earlier” are a partial quantity of information from “later.”
Nautilus Pompilius’ fully grown receptacle contains and documents all earlier stages of the receptacle and testifies to its historical development. The receptacle contains the memory of its past. Nature has a tangible memory of the past (but not of the future: We possess no fossils from the future).
This tangible memory is the material basis for human-subjective memory and is what makes it possible in the first place.

P C W Davies writes:
In short, our experience is asymmetric because we are coupled to other asymmetries in our environment. Specifically, the accumulation of information, called memory when it resides in or brains, is but a typical example of the general accumulation of information wich is taking place all around us in the universe (e.g. craters on the moon give information about its past history).
Every macroscopic object not only “has” a history, every object is its history, it is the material incorporation of a past.

A routine piece of blackboard chalk is a remnant of an animal skeleton which the earth’s forces have lifted to the surface so that it became a part of chalk cliffs. Then it was broken off and processed and now it is being used in order to write something on the blackboard and thus to transmit ideas.

The different of past, present and future is an objective physical property of nature!

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