Relativity without Einstein?
True! - The 4-dimensional space-time is no longer necessary to explain relativistic effects!
In 1905, when Einstein looked for an explanation for the constancy of
the speed of light, he conceived the four dimensional space-time. There
was hardly another solution at that time because there was no knowledge
yet about elementary particle physics.
This situation, however, has changed. So there is now an easier and more natural way to understand relativity. Natural means that relativity is based on the traditional understanding of space and time.
Relativity is the consequence of the internal structure of all elementary particles. The cinematic processes inside of an elementary particle are the only reason for the relativistic behavior of matter.
The particle model presented here is a generalization of the so called "Zitterbewegung" of the electron. It is compatible with today's experimental state of particle physics.
The time delay of every kinetic process is the consequence of the fact that matter is built by particles that oscillate permanently with the speed of light.
Elementary particles are generally assumed to comprise at least two constituents. These constituents have no mass and orbit each other with the speed of light. If now an elementary particle is set to motion, but its constituents still have to maintain the speed of light in relation to a fixed reference frame, the orbital frequency is reduced in the way predicted by the theory of relativity. This behaviour propagates to any higher structure in motion.
This means also that for instance every clock will go slower in motion.
The same box, but now filled with light, and with the inner walls made perfectly reflecting, can be weighed too.[...]
The theory, called the Photon Theory, is an effort to achieve a Unified Field Theory that Einstein and his colleagues pursued, that theory explaining mass and gravity in terms of electromagnetic waves.[...]
Photon Theory claims that photons comprise all mass. It follows the rule of complementarity, in that it is consistent with the principles of relativity, except that it explains relativity from a different approach.[...]
When two gamma-ray photons pass very close each can interfere with the other. This interference can cause a complete loop to occur. When it does and under exactly the right conditions, a photon may be trapped in a stable resonant cavity formed by the charge that results from the photon's curved path. This forms a spherical shell structure. As far as is known, only one photon energy level can be stable in this simple structure. An electron is a single photon trapped in a self resonant loop.[...]
Remembering that a massive object is composed of moving photons, then moving a massive object causes it to be more massive. Relative rate of photon field change must increase to accommodate the motion. That composition is also why mass can never exceed the speed of light and why the theory of relativity is real. Relativity is a necessary consequence of the photonic construct of mass.
The value of mass is not being redefined. But the concept of mass being a fundamental property is reviewed.
Mass is assumed to be fundamental physical property. The reason for this is obvious. It is something our senses can directly observe through either a mass's weight or the effort it takes to move an object, or impart a velocity. Mass is an unchanging property, conserved through many physical processes. This view was changed with special relativity. The only time mass is lost is when a corresponding amount of energy was released. The conservation of mass-energy replaced the separate concepts of conservation of mass and the conservation of energy. This effect of interchangeable mass and energy is used in high-energy physics but is ignored in our everyday environment.
There is another law of conservation that is required when doing mechanics, conservation of momentum. It is somewhat variable because the same amount of momentum can be found in either a small mass with a high velocity or a large mass with a low velocity. The amount of energy is different between the first example and the next. The exception to this case occurs with elementary particles that are massless. The photon is one of these particles. In this case a photon with twice the energy has twice the momentum, E=cp. If this law could be applied to all particles it would greatly simplify particle physics. Unfortunately, a particle with rest mass can have a variable amount of momentum, just like our everyday experience would tell us. A thought experiment is useful in potentially changing this view. [...]
One result of using momentum formulas is that it shows that mass is not a fundamental property. Momentum is fundamental. For quantum physics, momentum, p and dimension, x are fundamental. (Note: this x implies all dimensions, normal and hyperspace ones, it is different from above where x referred specifically to a normal space dimension. Historical use of x in both of these cases may lead to some confusion. It is hoped that the context they are used makes it clear if x is a general dimension or the normal space dimension.) In fact, special and general relativity effects will be shown to derive from quantum physics. Lorentz contraction and a mass's effect of curving space, creating gravity, are basically the same things. Both effects derive from x p = n h / 2 .
A new physical law is postulated: All known particles are elements of momentum moving at a velocity c. This is the result of extending a quantum theory formula for massless particles to all particles, p=h/2l . The new postulate is known to be true for photons. They have no mass, move at the speed of light and have momentum. At first, the new postulate seems to be untrue for particles with a rest mass. The momentum associated with a particle has a value directly related to the particle's velocity. This statement seems true because the present definition of momentum, p, includes only the three normal spatial dimensions, x, y, z. This new postulate applies for p traveling along all dimensions, including hyperspace ones. The value of a particle's momentum in hyperspace, its rest momentum, is just a particle's mass times the speed of light, p=m0c. This extension is based on special relativity and uses SR equation for mass. [...]
The conservation of momentum can explain the conservation of mass-energy.
The C velocity of light is found in two basic forms : INTERNAL VELOCITY MOTION (IV) and EXTERNAL VELOCITY MOTION (EV). The IV is the inside the matter shaping its atoms. The EV is outside the bodies.
The addition IV + EV is always equal to the C velocity of light.
The C velocity is the final unit of the universe, a unit pure motion, indivisible in its totality, therefore indestructible and able to suffer variatbles just in the amounts of its IV and EV components.
And displacements of a body immediately provokes an exchange between EV and IV. These compulsory changes in velocities form the mechanism of the universal clock, which is present everywhere, in accordance with the following chart:
(in kilometers per second)
Velocity + Internal Velocity = ABSOLUTE MOTION
* The internal velocity motion determines the rhythm of the clock present in every single body in the universe. The internal velocity of a body cannot reach 300,000 kilometers per second because the body would explode in light before. [...]
It should be pinpointed that universal motion has two basic directions:
- characteristic of light in vacuum;
- characteristic of matter, being present in every single body.
velocity of a body determines the rhythm of its clock and the more
it is, the more its direction will undergo a curving, as well as the
its ruler and its interaction forces will be. When the rhythm is over,
clock, the ruler and the weight disappear and only light in its
direction will be left. [...]
consider the second pillar exposed here, we can point out the other
situation of the main equation. We would then have EV=0 (IV=A). In
nothing can exist motionless in the cosmos. Everything has light
so it is easy to conclude that EV=0 (IV=A) would be the same thing as
(it would be light), since not a single body could be motionless in the
"C" velocity is present all over the physical universe, which starts
being regarded as a closed inertial system where absolute is formed by
addition of both external and internal changeable velocities, which
add up to "C" when they are together. By taking for granted that
motion is absolute , I thought it would be more sensible to replace
"C" for letter "A".
drawn this first comparison, it is possible to conclude that while
physics ignores the existence of absolute motion, absolutist physics
it as its main foundation, thus aiming at expanding the approach
the "C" light velocity, despite its cosmic invariability, cannot
be rated as a reference to the measure of universal timing. Thus, no
can know about his own velocity in the universe.
physics, the "A" motion cannot be rated as a reference, either,
since everything in the universe has the same absolute light velocity.
there cannot be any reference outside the "observer", who will only
be able to measure external motions different from his. Nobody can know
his true rhythm (his actual external or internal velocity.)
physics teaches that when the velocity of body gets closer to light
a clock coupled to such a body starts working more slowly. If that body
reach the light velocity proper (something that it actually can't do),
watch would stop and remain away from time.
physics, any material state is made of moving units that can considered
small clocks having the "A" motion. They are absolute units and
at the same time they are elastic in their external and internal
variables. As all the bodies would be shaped by the union of small
we can conclude that any single body in the universe would be a clock.
that happened to be valid for an "A" final unit would also be valid
for the whole universe. Whenever a body approached the highest external
its internal velocity would decrease at the same proportion (the rhythm
the clock). If the body could go on (it wouldn't be able to reach the
external velocity, which is pertinent to light), it would also stay
time - as it happens in relativity - with a stopped clock of its own.
p = m(ic)Now when the mass is accelerated to a velocity v, the mass' new velocity becomes,
v'= sqrt[v**2 + (i**2)c**2] = v'= sqrt[v**2 - c**2]such that the final momentum of the mass is now
p'= m' x sqrt[v**2 - c**2]If we equate the intial momentum with the final momentum (conservation of 4-momentum, if you will) we have,
m(ic) = m' x sqrt[v**2 - c**2] yielding, m = m'/(ic) x sqrt[v**2 - c**2]
ic = sqrt[i**2 x c**2] = sqrt[-c**2]
m = m'/sqrt[-c**2] x sqrt[v**2 - c**2] = m = m' x [1 - v**2/c**2]
m' = m/[1 - v**2/c**2]which is just the special relativistic mass formula of Einstein. The coefficient "i" comes into play in the above manipulations because multiplication by "i" or e**(i)pi/2 is the only way to rotate a vector in 3 space without producing another vector within the same 3 space; multiplication by "i" takes a 3-vector out of the 3-d manifold and so represents the relationship of time to the other three spatial axes.
Intgrl[mv]dv (v = ic to v = c) = 1/2 mv**2evaluated between the limits of v = ic and v = c which yields,
1/2m(c**2) - 1/2m(i**2 x c**2) = mc**2Of course the energy of motion is just the integral of the momentum from the initial to the final velocities.
Matter as associations of electromagnetic radiation
Matter is made up of the accumulation, association, or interaction of the stuff we call energy. We can relate matter to electromagnetic radiation through the concept of energy. If matter is energy, through E = mc2, and electromagnetic radiation is energy, through E = f x h, then the energy of matter may be the energy which is electromagnetic radiation.
For example, let us say you have two small wooden chairs, and you want to make a single larger chair. In combining the two chairs you end up with a couple of left over pieces of wood that are not needed to compose the structure of the new larger chair. So you toss them aside. This is what the stars are doing in nuclear fusion. When combining hydrogen atoms into a heavier atom, some of the constituent pieces that make up the hydrogen atoms are not needed to compose the structure of the single heavier atom, and so are tossed aside or released. What is released from stars through fusion is electromagnetic radiation, part of which we perceive as visible light. Therefore, it is not unreasonable to postulate that hydrogen atoms are composed, at least in part, of constituent pieces in the form of electromagnetic radiation.
Therefore, the chain of logic linking electromagnetic radiation to gravitation begins bypostulating that matter is, at least in part, focal accumulations of interacting or structurally associated electromagnetic wavicles. Put another way, when two or more electromagnetic wavicles form a stable association, that association exists as matter.
When we measure the mass of an object by weighing it, we are measuring
as its mass at rest the moving mass together with the resting mass of
the particles that make it up. There is no such thing as mass totally
at rest. Moving mass is resting mass, if it is confined to an
infinitesimal volume. Mass at rest is a relative concept.
|One of the Principles of this Theory is that the differential
elements of the equator-ring of all particles always move at the speed
of light. As both rings of the electron coincide, the differential
elements of charge of the electron always travel at the speed of light.
The origin of mass is clearly defined by this Theory. One of its conclusions is "Mass is just movement. And its behaviour is ruled by two simple laws". Concerning the importance of this statement, this is what Fermilab physicist Chris Hill says: "Understanding the origin of mass would be an achievement on a par with the greatest scientific strides in history, like Newton's establishing the universal law of gravitation or Einstein's connection of energy to mass and the speed of light".
The circular electric currents originated by the turning of the charge-rings constitute the origin of the nuclear forces and at the same time they are the intermediate step between mass energy and electromagnetic radiation energy. This is the mechanism used by Nature for any energy transformation.
To summarize we may consider all manifestation of matter as whirls that turn around their own axes, so that the equatorial speeds always equal the speed of light. Mass and energy at rest vary proportionally with the turning frequency and size decreases proportionally with mass, energy and frequency. Mass is just movement. When movement ceases mass disappears. Particles are surrounded by circular charge-rings, which turn with the frequency of the corresponding particle and the charge of every ring is equal to the fundamental electric charge.
There is another point, not yet understood by Science, which is also explained by this Theory. As energy of matter is mc2 , there must be some intimate relationship between matter, even at rest, with the speed of light. This Theory gives the explanation: the speed of light is always reached inside each whirl, which is the elementary block of matter. The equator always turns so that the linear speed of all its differential elements is the speed of light.
In this web page you can read fragments of the book "The Inertial Mass" published June 1998. It shows a model that is able to explain the mass in its inertial aspect (not gravitational). A possible, rational and complete explanation of this phenomenon . Did you know that the mass is one of the biggest riddles of the twentieth century?
Do you know what the mass is ? Why does time dilate? Why does the mass get bigger when we accelerate it? Can you understand why c is the maximum possible speed?
first time all the answers!!! In:
To understand all the associated phenomenology that gives form to the
Theory of Special Relativity.
THE INERTIAL MASS, EXPANDED CONCEPT ©
Applying the old method of the black box to the study of mass, soon it reveals as a system able to interaction with the exterior through input and output impulses. Curiuosly, the increase of mass and its two possible observable magnitudes, as we know, dilation, of time and speed, seem to come from the balance between the input-output impulses. Finally all this has reason when we consider mass as a particular structure of impulses. [...]
What does it mean that time dilates ? Why is it impossible to exceed the velocity of light ? Why does mass increment when it is accelerated ?. We only know that the formulas say so and that it all seems to wok that way as experiments show us, but why ?
Till now, no theory has explained the underlying mechanism that causes such things to happen. In fact, you don't have to be a genius to work out that the Relativity Theory falls short on common sense. [...]
We can now ask ourselves what precisely is the nature of this state of minimal energy in our balance of accounts ? In other words, if we have a mass "A" for one direction and a mass "B" for another each constituted by masses under uni-directional impulses, what impulses and in what direction do they operate when the mass system is in a state of rest or minimum energy ? We can only say that whatever they may be they have the important characteristic of allowing increases of energy in any direction (I :E : omni-direcctional ) when an impulse arrives and is integrated to the mass system. We also know that it can be assumed that they must be in a state of balance for no resulting movement to exist. Could the initial mass be an amalgam of impulses from all directions ? [...]
Is mass really just a collection of impulses ? In any case all seems to indicate that both the mass gained and the mass lost are dependant on a flow of impulses in one direction or another. With this in mind , we can begin to perceive the movement from another perspective since, apparently it depends between the degree of imbalance between impulses in one direction and from its opposite which make up the total mass of the system. Mass can then be outlined as a set made up of different quantities of impulse in one direction and its opposite. In fact, if we take into account that the described mechanism of reaction works on mass objects when impulse is applied from any direction, then, we must consider mass as a set consisting of impulses in all potential directions or as an omnidirectional set of impulses. On the other hand , the fact that the impulses available to respond in any one direction eventually run out clearly indicates that the quantity of available impulses in a mass x for any given direction are finite and quantifiable.
If we think of mass in a state of rest as an omni-directional system of bounded impulses, in other words, a system under tension but in equilibrium and that velocity is a state of imbalance between the impulses in a direction and its opposite, then, we can assume that the arrival of a given volume of unit-directional impulses added to those already present in the initial mass and moving in the same direction would cause different amounts of imbalance depending on whether they enter a larger or smaller original volume of mass. Thus reinforcing the idea of this model where mass is described as a "system of omni-directional impulses"...
|...according to Professor Morton, helicoid atoms (as he calls
them) fit naturally into the scheme of Relativity. As he puts it, "the
speed of light is constant because all clocks are made of atoms, and
atoms are like windmills. The wind would have a constant speed if you
used a windmill as a clock to measure it." [...]
The most amusing thing (to me) in Gilbert's letter is the explanation of Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity. Imagine using a windmill as a clock. You would have to define one revolution of the windmill as "one second" no matter how fast or slow it revolved. Indeed, if you tried to measure the speed of the wind using a windmill as a clock you will always get the same result-- i.e. a constant speed. If all clocks are, in fact, made up of "helicoid particles," then that means that the motions of the clocks are an amplified version of the motions of the particles, so clocks spin slower when the particles that make them up spin slower. When the particles slow down, the clocks slow down. Because all sub-atomic particles "spin" in electromagnetic fields the way that windmills spin in the wind, the speed of propagation of any electromagnetic field (i.e. the speed of light) is constant.
Rest mass energy is the structural
The rest mass of a particle is determined
by the internal unit matter substructure
of the particle.
The energy bound in a particle structure as rest mass must rotate at harmonic intervals in the closed loop. The closed loop of the energy in the particle structure is required to be at harmonic intervals.
It must be stated that energy rotation about a host unit particle of matter is not proposed to be anything like the planets orbiting the Sun. Energy rotation about its host is a complex action and is described by the wave function of the particle. Moving images of wave functions are extremely enlightening. The math tells it all.
For instance, electrons have a singlet unit particle of matter substructure with a single energy loop hosted by a single unit particle of matter. The circumference of the .51 MeV energy loop has a fundamental harmonic such that exactly two rotations of the energy and the energy is at the same exact phase. The circumference of the energy loop of the electron, curiously enough, occurs at half the wavelength, which is why it takes two rotations of energy (720º) around the electron for the energy to be at the same phase.
Special Relativity: Why rest mass increases with velocity?
The present understanding is mass increases with velocity according to the relativistic equations. Which is of course, is correct.
A particle with a rest mass has to have infinite energy to travel at the speed of light. That covers what, now we want to know how?
The proposed new mechanical insight however is: because the rest mass-energy of a particle is a closed loop, there is always a component of the energy in the loop which works against the momentum of the particle as the particle moves through the background of matter.
In other words, rest mass energy is an energy that because of its closed loop nature drags on the background, and the drag increases with velocity according to the relativistic equations.
It would take an infinite amount of energy to overcome the negative influence of the retrograde energy in the closed loop of the particle structure which causes basically, drag through the background of matter.
Rest mass energy and momentum energy are made from the same quantities, units of energy.
It is proposed, that strictly according to the relativistic equations, what is physically meant by rest mass increasing with velocity is that it takes increasingly more momentum energy to move that rest mass through the background (space) at greater velocity.
A rest mass particle has velocity due to the addition of momentum energy to its rest mass energy. The physical reason behind the relativistic equations indicating the diminishing returns for the addition of momentum energy toward increasing the velocity of a particle with a rest mass is due to that as the velocity of the rest mass approaches the speed of light, the retrograde energy in the internal structure of the particle (its rest mass) causes greater and greater resistance against the background of matter.
|The Ball-of-Light Particle Model is a Grand Unification
Theory. It states that all elementary particles--that is, individual
particles--are spherical, standing waves of electric, magnetic, and
gravitational fields--that is, balls of light. The general equation for
this Grand Unification Theory is Electric cross Magnetic equals
When thinking of the Ball-of-Light Particle Model, just remember Einstein's famous equation, E = mc2. Matter can be converted into energy and energy can be converted into matter because matter is made of energy--light spinning around itself in spherical standing waves of electric, magnetic and gravitational energy.
In other words, matter is made of light spinning around itself. This is very intuitive to most scientists, or anyone familiar with E = mc2. It is well known that matter can be converted into energy and energy can be converted into matter. Why? Because matter is made out of energy. Matter is simply electromagnetic and gravitational energy--that is, a form* of "light"--spinning around itself. Matter is spherical, standing waves of electro-magnetic-gravitational energy.
Elementary particles are superimposed combinations of photons.
H. Ziegler pointed out in 1909 that if the most elemental constituents of mass all moved at the invariable speed of light, relativity would be a natural result given the classic view of space-time. This idea has been investigated many times during the last hundred years and no one has been successful in their attempts to refute it. The Lorentz equations that describe relativistic effects fall right out of Zieglers construct. Nothing else is needed; it's all right there.
There is a way to describe photons such that everything in the universe must necessarily be a natural consequence of photonic interaction. Photons of this flavor agree with experiment and behave in accord with most of the rules of quantum physics but they depart from the most cherished notion of that science and avoid its unreasonable ideas. These photons consist of saturated points of electric and magnetic amplitude in fields of electric and magnetic force that permeate all the fabric of space.
This photonic universe must necessarily exist in non-varying space and time in the classic-common sense. [ Classic Space-Time ] All massive objects are made of photons that move at the constant speed of light. Because of this, they must necessarily experience space and time differently when the mass is moving. The phenomenon of relativity is the natural result of the construct of mass and is not a property of space or time. 
According to the theory of relativity and according to observations, adding movement to any massive object makes it more massive. Some portion of the massiveness of any moving object must therefore be due only to movement.
All the components of mass are in a jumble of related motion. Protons, neutrons, electrons, atoms, and molecules comprise mass; they all vibrate and orbit and whiz around inside of mass. So rest mass can only be imagined, never really measured, but most scientists assume that there is a fundamental kind of massiveness called rest mass. So, now we have massiveness which is due only to movement, and another fundamental kind of mass called rest mass.
We have a real problem now. How can we tell the difference between movement mass and rest mass? What fundamental thing can we measure so that we can say for sure that this is movement mass and this is rest mass.
We might measure the overall relative movement of a chunck of mass; calculate what mass would be due to that movement; subtract that from the total mass and say what's left is rest mass. But then what about the vibration of the molecules; that's movement. What about the electrons whizzing about protons and such. All those movements can't really be known except, maybe, in a statistical sense. But wait; is this even reasonable? Probably not!
It is not reasonable in nature that there could be two fundamentally different kinds of massiveness. We know for sure that we have mass that is due only to movement. However, we do not know and can never measure, that kind of mass known as rest mass. Maybe it is that all of massiveness is really due only to the movement of some fundamental thing in nature. With that idea we are off the hook. Everything now makes sense. We have only one kind of mass; it is comprised only of the movement of some fundamental thing in nature.
Since the most fundamental thing in nature is the photon, massiveness must be due in some way to photon movement, or more exactly, mass must actually be that which is the photon; changing electromagnetic fields. From photons we know that energy; therefore massiveness; is directly related to the rate of change of the photon's fields. Mass is directly perportional to the rate of change of the photon fields that comprise it. From this idea alone and knowing that photons are quantized we can develop the mass equation: m = hv / c2. Or said more clearly; mass is electromagnetic change.
MASS IS ELECTROMAGNETIC CHANGE.
Everything in nature points to this. The equation that Henri Poincare wrote down in 1900 said it first. Poincare wrote, E = mc2
to show how much acceleration a pulse of light gave to particles of
mass and Albert Einstein showed several years later that this equation
described the fundamental relationship between all of energy and mass.