 ## DERIVATION OF THE BASIC PHENOMENONS ### Derivation of the law of conservation of energy

Two pieces of physics have been unified: conservation of momentum and conservation of mass energy.

Robert Rutkiewicz: A General Theory of Particles and Forces

This is the derivation of the law of conservation of energy from the luxon theory:

 [ I ] For all luxons the relation  E=pc   is true. This is well known. [ II ] According to the luxon hypothesis, all tardyons and any type of matter with rest mass completely consist of luxons. [ III ] From [I] and [II] follows the universal validity of  E=pc  : E=pc  is true for luxons. However, every existing type of matter are luxons and nothing else. From this follows:  E=pc  is true for all matters. [ IV ] According to the law of conservation of momentum the momentum p is constant in time. c is a constant in the formula, anyway. From this follows, according to the law of conservation of momentum:  pc  is constant in time. [ V ] From [III] and [IV] follows the law of conservation of energy: pc  can neither be created nor destroyed according to the law of conservation of momentum. According to  E=pc  , the same is true for energy.

All measurement results in favour of the law of conservation of energy, are a confirmation of luxon theory, too.

### Amended version of momentum addition

But the momentum is a vector, and energy isn't!
The total momentum of my chair is zero. Its total energy, however, is different from that, because it has a certain rest energy.

This was so until now!

But in the luxon theory these conditions are different.

There are two basically different types of addition of vectors of momentum which before were standing beside each other unlinked. I doubt that anybody before me saw any problem in that.
##### 1. The addition of momentum facing each other by destruction.
Two bodies collide in an inelastic impact. Before the impact, the total momentum of both bodies was zero and after the impact the total momentum is zero, too. However, caused by the impact the momentum of each body has been destroyed.
##### 2. The addition of momentum facing each other by compensation in a momentum equilibrium I inflate a balloon. When the balloon is at rest, the total momentum of the balloon is zero. From this follows that the total momentum of the air molecules in it is zero. In spite of that, every single air molecule still has a certain momentum (it causes the interior pressure of the balloon which keeps the balloon inflated).
Obviously, "total momentum = zero" does not mean that there would be no momentum at all any more in the balloon. In this case, it would give way to the outer air pressure and collapse. The momentum of the air molecules are not added by mutual destruction, but by a mutual compensation in an momentum equilibrium!
If there are two different ways to describe the same kind of phenomenon, only one of it can be right.

Often, the description 1 (momentum addition by destruction) is regarded as the correct one, and the description 2 (momentum addition in an equilibrium) is not considered at all.

Obviously, description 1 fails in the simple description of a balloon. According to it, the momentum would be destroyed and the balloon would collapse in the very same moment.
Only description 2 is able to correctly describe both cases. If nature only allows one type of description, this is the correct one!

From it follows, however, the entire luxon theory - .Vice versa, from the luxon theory follows the validity of momentum addition by compensation.

FORCE-EQUILIBRIUM
no aceleration = no force?

MOMENTUM-EQUILIBRIUM
no velocity = no momentum?  electron + positron = positronium

There are hidden forces
in a force equilibrium

There is hidden momentum in a momentum equilibrium  Inside of tardyons is the momentum of luxons.
E=pc is universal true.

Certain events set them free  the reaction between matter and antimatter creates no momentum but set the inner momentum (energy) free

In an equilibrium of forces, forces are not destroyed.
This is also true in case of the vector addition of momentum. It is complicated to destroy momentum by an unknown mechanism.
Impulses are not destroyed during an inelastic impact. They compensate in an equilibrium of momentum. In the reverse procedure, the liberation of momentum (as, e.g. during an explosion), no momentum is created. The inner momentum is only set free.

The most extreme case is the reaction between matter and antimatter. In this case, too, no momentum is created but the inner momentum is set free.
Since no momentum is created, the (luxon) momentum set free must have existed before inside the tardyons.

From this follows that tardyons consist of luxons.
The luxon hypothesis already follows from the fact that momentum have to be added in the same way as forces have to be added, too.

Why has it ever been assumed that the individual momentum are destroyed during an inelastic impact, instead of assuming an equilibrium of momentum, as it is done in the case of the equilibrium of forces?

## Derivation of the phenomenon "energy"

 [ I ] For all luxons the relation  E=pc   is true. This is well known. [ II ] According to the luxon hypothesis, all tardyons and any type of matter with rest mass completely consist of luxons. [ III ] From [I] and [II] follows the universal validity of  E=pc  : E=pc  is true for luxons. However, every existing type of matter are luxons and nothing else. From this follows:  E=pc  is true for all matters. [ IV ] Since  E=pc  is universally true, in every place where energy "E" is used,  pc  can be inserted instead of it. [ V ] Therefore, I define: E: = pc Energy is the amount of the luxon momentum with the dimension J. ### Glueballs

Each quark or antiquark gives rise to a chromoelectric field, much as an electron or its antiparticle, the positron, generates an ordinary electric field. And just as electrons in an atom are bound to the nucleus by the action of the electric field, so the quarks and antiquarks of hadrons attract each other through the force produced by the chromoelectric field.

The analogy between the electric field and the chromoelectric field is less exact when it comes to the particles that "carry" the force. In the case of the electric field, there is a single uncharged particle, the photon, whereas in the case of the chromoelectric field, there are eight different kinds of gluons, each of which has a "color" charge, analogous to the electric charge.

QCD predicts that, by means of their charge, gluons can interact with each other to form a new family of particles called glueballs.
These glueballs also can be thought of as infinitesimal bundles of the chromoelectric field.

Gluons are luxons, i.e. they move with the velocity of light.
Glueballs consist of interactive gluons.

A glueball is a tardyon which consists of luxons.

Yorktown Heights, N.Y., Dec. 18, 1995 -- Using one of the world's fastest super-computers nonstop for two years, IBM scientists have calculated the properties of an elusive elementary particle, called a "glueball," and shown they match those of a previously unidentified particle detected in several experiments carried out over the last 12 years. The massive calculation -- the largest single numerical calculation in the history of computing -- can be viewed as the first instance of a particle's "discovery" by means of a computer.
Its rest mass is 1.710 GeV.

The calculation was carried out on GF11, a massively parallel computer designed and built specifically for QCD calculations at the Watson Research Center by Weingarten in collaboration, principally, with Monty Denneau and David George. The calculation, which required more than four hundred million billion arithmetic operations, ran continuously for two years on 448 of GF11's 566 processors, each of which has about the same power as today's fastest PCs.

For many years theoreticians have postulated the existence of glueballs -- bundles of the material that binds quarks together to form protons and neutrons -- but experiments failed to find them. Now teams including CLRC researchers working on the Crystal Barrel experiment at CERN may have found the evidence. A light and short-lived particle with many of the right properties looks likely to point to the elusive glueball.

The verification of this particle is an overwhelming success for the luxon theory. Its existence disproves all theoretically objections against the statement that "tardyons consist of luxons".
Nobody can still say: "This is impossible."
In contrary: Today we know that approximate half of the rest mass of protons and neutrons are carried by the restmass-less gluons which interchange quarks. That means: Nearly half of this table, this chair consists of particles with light velocity. This is already known. It is absolutely enough to assume that luxons interact
constantly in order to derive all tardyon-like characteristics.
Constantly interacting luxons have the characteristics of tardyons. A glueball is a tardyon.
Tardyons are constantly interacting luxons.
From this follow all specific characteristics of tardyons, which differentiate them from luxons. 