There is an unambiguous physical extrapolation, according to which the most elementary particles within tardyons have the velocity of light (Sexl/Raab/Streeruwitz 1980, page 72):
The De Broglie-wavelength of the particles in the atomic core must be approximately of the same size as the core diameter, because the particle is limited to the space of the atomic core. In case of the oxygen core considered above, the wavelength is therefore


for the velocity v of the core particles follows:

Thus, the particles in the atomic core move with a fifth of the velocity of light! This can be attributed to the small dimension of the core. The smaller a formation is, the bigger are, according to the de-Broglie-relation

the impulses of the particles contained in it. The atomic core is therefore not a static order of proton and neutrons at all, but a very dynamic formation in which the particles are whirling confusedly around.
The smaller and the more elementary a formation is, the more the velocity of the particles contained in it is near the velocity of light, the more luxon-like the particles become! The smaller the considered space is, the bigger is the part of the rest energy of the oxygen atom which is based on a part of the movement energy.

The thermal energy of a body, i.e. its internal movement, increases the rest energy of a body. I state: Rest energy is not an independent form of energy at all, as chemical or electrical energy is. It is a form of kinetic energy.
Molecules, atoms, protons, quarks, subquarks -, the smaller, the more elementary the particles are, the smaller the proportion of rest energy, respectively, which is responsible for its entire energy, becomes, and the bigger the proportion of energy which originates from the inner movement, becomes.

From this I extrapolate the most elementary particles in the atom are completely without rest energy.
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